|Projets et contrats | Collaborations ||
Disciplinary attitudes: Punitiveness, social control and perceived legitimacy of authority (CHF 114'000)
2007 - 2010
Requérant : Christian Staerklé
Autres collaborateurs : Régis Scheidegger (postdoc)
This research investigates differential attitudes towards institutional social control, referred to as disciplinary attitudes. Based on secondary analyses of national (e.g., Vox, Selects, SHP, MosaiCH) and international (e.g., Eurobarometer, ESS, ISSP) survey data, its goal is to examine the social foundations of perceived public legitimacy of disciplinary institutions such as the police and the legal system as well as the factors which shape public attitudes towards punitive and repressive policies. The project addresses public sentiments about the "punitive turn" which has marked the development of Western societies during the last two or three decades. By studying disciplinary attitudes, the project thus speaks to highly mediatised issues such as widespread feelings of urban insecurity, fear of youth violence, and the experience of social exclusion.
Two major processes are predicted to explain perceived legitimacy of authorities and support for disciplinary action: (1) Support for disciplinary action should be a strategy to enhance negative social identities associated with low status and socially excluded groups, because support for disciplinary action allows differentiating one-self positively from subjectively inferior groups. High-status groups, in turn, are more motivated to support the institutions which maintain their superior position in the social hierarchy. (2) Support for disciplinary action should reflect coping with perceived, plural threats to the social order. The project tests the hypothesis that disciplinary action is viewed as a response to groups perceived and constructed as threatening the social order, that is, to "bad" people (e.g., criminals), to free riders (e.g., welfare beneficiaries), to outgroups (e.g., immigrants) and to low-status groups (e.g., the poor).
Advanced statistical techniques, including Structural Equation Modelling and multilevel analyses, will be performed.
Justice pénale internationale vécue par les accusés: Légitimité et responsabilité (CHF 317'000)
2011 - 2012 (24 mois)
Requérant : Paola Gaeta
Autres collaborateurs : Christian Staerklé, Robert Roth
Based on an interdisciplinary approach that combines expertise in international penal law and theory and methodology from social psychology, this research aims to contribute to the evaluation of the international criminal justice case law and its legitimacy with regard to the conventional objectives of criminal law (special deterrence, rehabilitation and retribution). Semi-directed interviews with 20 individuals who where accused and judged (convicted or acquitted) by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) will be carried out. In-depth qualitative analysis, using thematic and typological methods, of the
interviewees' discourses concerning their perceptions of procedures and sanctions stemming from the ICTY, as well as of their criminal responsibility will be carried out. We will then evaluate the case law of international criminal jurisdictions by confronting it to the perceptions of convicted individuals. Demonstrating the feasibility of this research, a pilot interview with a person convicted by the ICTY has already been conducted. International criminal justice is currently at crossroads because of the imminent closure of international criminal Tribunals and the onset of trials at the International Criminal Court. The appraisal of the impact of these jurisdictions and their working in light of their objectives is essential, and the impact of this project therefore potentially significant.
The social psychology of attitudes towards cultural diversity: A multilevel analysis in Switzerland
2009 - 2010
Requérant : Eva Green
Autres collaborateurs : Christian Staerklé, Alain Clémence
This project investigates the social and contextual foundations of individual attitudes towards cultural diversity and immigration in Switzerland. Based on a social psychological framework, we examine why citizens support or oppose integration of immigrants in a number of social domains, expressed for example in attitudes towards cultural diversity at the workplace, rights of asylum seekers, and laws prohibiting racism and discriminatory treatment. The research is carried out on existing national survey data on diversity and immigration. Our research tests competing predictions based on threat and intergroup contact theories on both the individual and the contextual level. While threat theories emphasize the negative impact of immigrant presence (either perceived as a material or a symbolic threat), contact theories focus on its positive consequences (based on positive experience with immigrants). By studying how well-established psychological processes underlying prejudice and discrimination are moderated by contextual, canton/municipality-level characteristics, this project aims to clarify the conditions under which threat or contact hypotheses are better suited to account for diversity attitudes. The project will evolve in three phases: (1) Databases which contain items on diversity attitudes, threat perceptions and contact are overviewed and an inventory of relevant items is created. In parallel, a context-level indicator database is created. (2) Comparable and reliable indicators across the databases are constructed. The social psychological meaning of cantons/municipalities as units of analysis is evaluated. (3) The predicted multilevel models (regression analyses and structural equations) are tested and cross-validated with different datasets.
Trajectoires en contexte - NCCR LIVES Phase II
2015 - 2018
Requérant : Prof. F. Bühlmann, Prof. C. Bolzman, Prof. O. Fillieule, Prof. J.-L. Heeb, Prof. G. Michel, Prof. D. Spini, Prof. C. Staerkle, Prof. L. Vandecasteele
L'IP201 a pour objectif le développement d'un modèle multidimensionnel, dynamique et contextualisé de la vulnérabilité, définie comme un manque de ressources individuelles ou collectives exposant les individus ou les groupes à un risque élevé de connaître (1) des conséquences négatives liées à des sources de stress; (2) une incapacité à faire face de manière efficace à un facteur de stress; et (3) une incapacité à se remettre d'un facteur de stress ou de tirer parti d'occasions dans une période donnée. Cet IP recueille des données conjointement au troisième échantillon du Panel suisse de ménages (PSM-III) géré par FORS: l'enquête relative à la cohorte LIVES et le panel vaudois LIVES-FORS.
Supervision de la doctorante A. Hoffman
Perceived legitimacy of intergroup agression and collective punishment as a function of group value (CHF 171'000)
2008 - 2012
Requérant : Juan-Manuel Falomir-Pichastor
Autres collaborateurs : Christian Staerklé, Fabrizio Butera
This project investigates factors which determine whether or not intergroup aggression is perceived as legitimate. Among the different forms of intergroup aggression, we emphasise collective punishment which refers to a process of retaliation against a group whose individual members are perceived as having violated important norms and rules. The main goal of the present project is to examine the hypothesis that the perceived legitimacy of intergroup aggression and collective punishment is based on the assumed moral value of groups. This research question has important implications for perceptions of conflicts occurring in the real world such as international military interventions. Prior research has shown that the political structure of conflicting groups in terms of a democratic-egalitarian or a non-democratic hierarchical organisation moderates the perceived legitimacy of intergroup aggression and collective punishment. For example, aggressions perpetrated by members of an egalitarian group at the expense of members of a hierarchical group were perceived as the most legitimate, compared to other configurations between conflicting groups. Three research directions will be undertaken: (1) examination of the relationship between political group structure (i.e. more or less democratic or egalitarian groups) and shared responsibility by group members. (2) testing of the hypothesis that asymmetrical moral value attributed to democratic and non-democratic groups actually constitutes the explanatory factor of the perceived differential legitimacy of aggressions. (3) study of the relationship between an explanation in terms of group value and an alternative explanation according to which differences in perceived legitimacy of intergroup aggressions are due to a social categorization in terms of ingroups and outgroups.
Faire face à des événements critiques à l'âge de jeune adulte: Une approche normative de la vulnérabilité et de la régulation des parcours de vie (PRN LIVES - IP9)
2011 - 2014 (48 mois)
Requérant : Christian Staerklé
Autres collaborateurs : Alain Clémence, Eva G.T. Green, Guy Elcheroth & Dario Spini
When confronted with important life events, individuals must adapt and engage in regulation strategies. Depending on the event, they may strive to optimally integrate it into their life course, they may seek to regain control over their lives, or they just want to minimise pain and suffering resulting from the event. Analysing the normative foundations of life courses and their regulation from a social psychological perspective, this project examines the relationships between different forms of vulnerability and different types of regulation strategies in response to normative and non-normative life events. It focuses on both individually and collectively experienced events occurring predominantly during the transition from adolescence to adulthood, in particular in the work and family spheres. The projected research is mainly based on longitudinal (SHP) and cross-sectional (ESS, ISSP, EVS) data analysis.
Rights, Identity and Legitimacy: A social representational approach of public attitudes towards social policies (CHF 105'000)
2002 - 2004
Requérant : Christian Staerklé
Research project for the Advanced Researcher Fellowship (SNF), University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)
Perception de l'Etat social dans un contexte de diversités et d'inégalités sociales (CHF 308'000)
2000 - 2003
Requérant : Christian Staerklé
Autres collaborateurs : Patricia Roux (co-requérante), Christophe Delay, Lavinia Gianettoni
Ce projet, effectué dans le cadre du PNR 45 Problèmes de l'Etat social, a examiné les facteurs qui déterminent le soutien ou le rejet de différents régimes de l'État social en Suisse. L'enquête basée sur 769 interviews individuelles a été effectuée en milieu urbain, à Lausanne, Neuchâtel, Berne et St. Gall. La majorité des personnes interrogées plaident en faveur d'un État social fort. Le soutien à l'AVS dans sa forme actuelle et dans son éventuelle extension est réel. La fidélité à la logique universaliste se fonde sur le sentiment d'insécurité économique et la perception d'inégalités entre catégories privilégiées et défavorisées. Les personnes issues de catégories sociales relativement défavorisées (par ex. les romands, les femmes, les personnes peu formées) sont davantage favorables à la logique universaliste de l'AVS que les autres personnes. En ce qui concerne l'assurance maladie, les opinions sont partagées entre le soutien aux politiques de solidarité (adaptation des primes aux revenus et financement fiscal) et le désir de réduire les coûts grâce aux contributions en fonction des comportements à risque ou à l'exclusion complète de certains risques (par ex. obésité). S'agissant de l'aide sociale, l'échantillon veut à la fois augmenter les budgets de l'assistance et cibler les prestations, obliger la réinsertion des bénéficiaires et renforcer les sanctions en cas d'abus. De façon générale, des sentiments diffus de perte de valeurs et de désordre social entraînent une volonté de contrôler et de sanctionner les individus dont le comportement paraît irresponsable ou immoral, par exemple en coupant les prestations sociales aux personnes étrangères. Des résultats supplémentaires concernent l'assurance maternité et le soutien aux droits collectifs attribués aux minorités (personnes avec handicap, homosexuels, etc.).
Reinventing citizenship in South Caucasus : Exploring the dynamic and contradictions between formal conceptions and informal practices (CHF 40'000)
2000 - 2003
Requérant : Willem Doise
Autres collaborateurs : Carine Bachmann, Christian Staerklé
SCOPES project in South Caucasus (Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan)
Welfare attitudes as responses to perceived risks and threats (CHF 253'000)
2009 - 2011
Requérant : Christian Staerklé
Autres collaborateurs : Régis Scheidegger (postdoc), Tiina Likki (doc)
This individual project is carried out within the framework of a European Science Foundation research programme (HumVIB: Human Values, Institutions and Behaviour) on Welfare attitudes in a changing Europe (directed by Stefan Svallfors, Umea University, Sweden)
This project investigates attitudes towards policies of social welfare, redistribution and social control held by citizens of 30 European countries. On the individual level, such "welfare attitudes" are viewed as individual responses deployed to cope with perceived risks (e.g., risk of unemployment, of being victimised) and societal threats (e.g., threat of a dangerous society, of freeriders taking advantage of the system, of a country loosing its national identity). Policy attitudes are thus seen as devices with which citizens aim to shape social order in a democratic society, for example by legitimising privileges granted to dominant groups in society, by punishing non-conformity, by favouring nationals over foreigners, or by correcting illegitimate inequalities. On the contextual level, a multilevel approach studies the impact of contextual and institutional factors of the 30 European countries under investigation (such as welfare regime, crime levels, social inequality or economic performance), on welfare and control attitudes, along with potential cross-level interactive effects. On a theoretical level, the project seeks to develop an empirically grounded model of the complex relationships in lay thinking between models of social justice and models of social control, and their origins in citizens' group membership and everyday life. Results will be based on data from the fourth round of the European Social Survey (to be released in September 2009) and in particular on its new module on welfare attitudes. Multilevel analyses and structural equation modelling will be the main analytical strategies.